, Driver Exam
, Read First Line
, Max Sum
, Paper Strip
, Unloading Trucks
, Password Advice
, Read Write Execute
, Shining Star
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, Date Transform
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, Internal Nodes
, Log Parser
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, Snow Storm
, Stack to List
, Test Results
, Unique Product
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, Weighted Average
, Language Teacher
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, Services Config
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The Java programming language is a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Having a basic familiarity with the programming language used on the job is a prerequisite for quickly getting up to speed.
Everyone makes mistakes. A good programmer should be able to find and fix a bug in their or someone else's code.
A programmer should use a language as a tool, always taking advantage of language-specific data types and built-in functions.
A stream is a sequence of data elements made available over time. It is particularly useful for tasks that may benefit from being asynchronous, including tasks such as I/O processing or reading from a file, and as such is important for developers to understand.
The string data structure is used to represent text. It is one of the most commonly used data structures. Therefore, every programmer should be skilled at string manipulation.
Exceptions exist in most modern programming languages, making it important for a programmer to understand them and know how to handle them.
Arithmetic is a fundamental branch of mathematics. An understanding of arithmetic concepts, and their application, is important for every candidate.
When designing and/or analyzing an algorithm or data structure, it is important to consider the performance and structure of an implementation. Algorithmic thinking is one of the key traits of a good programmer, especially one working on complex or performance-critical code.
An array is a container of a fixed number of objects of a similar type. It is a fundamental component of most programming languages.
Every programmer should be familiar with data-sorting methods, as sorting is very common in data-analysis processes.
The Spring Framework is an application framework that can be used to build both java applications and web applications. As one of the most widely used frameworks it's important for most Java developers to have a working knowledge of.
The MVC pattern is designed to split an application into three logical parts: the model, the view and the controller. The model is responsible for the data and the rules of the application. The view is responsible for outputting that information, and the controller is responsible for accepting input from a user and forwarding it to the model or the view. Every web developer should be familiar with the MVC pattern and the benefits of encapsulating these components.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services. As it is one of the most commonly used architectures, knowledge of REST is important for back-end developers.
Test-driven development (TDD) is a software development process that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: requirements are turned into very specific test cases, based on which the software is improved only in order to pass the new tests. TDD is an essential skill for modern programmers.
Memory management allows programs to request memory dynamically from the operating system, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. Many modern programming languages automate this process; however, it should still be an important consideration when implementing an application.
A linked list is a linear collection of data elements where each element points to the next. It is a data structure consisting of a collection of nodes which together represent a sequence. It is usually used for advanced scenarios where we need fast access to the next element, or when we need to remove an element from anywhere in the collection.
Integer division is division in which the fractional part (remainder) is discarded. Knowing this is important for optimal implementation of some algorithms and for avoiding common bugs.
A regular expression (regex) is a special text string for describing a search pattern. It is a common way for extracting data from text.
Object-oriented programming is a paradigm based on encapsulating logic and data into objects, which may then contain fields and procedures. Many of the most widely used programming languages are based on OOP, making it a very important concept in modern programming.
The process of restructuring existing computer code without changing its external behavior. It is essential for keeping code readable and maintainable.
A queue is a collection of items that are maintained in a sequence and can be modified by the addition of entities at one end of the sequence and removal from the other end of the sequence. It is the collection to be used when first-in-first-out (FIFO) collection is needed.
A HashMap (or dictionary) is a data type composed of a collection of key-value pairs, where each possible key appears at most once in the collection. It is used when we need to access items by their keys.
Iteration is the act of repeating a process, or cycling through a collection. Iteration is one of the fundamental flow control tools available to developers.
Lists are collections that act as dynamic arrays. Lists offer the flexibility of dynamically sized arrays, the simplicity of access of arrays, and are more performant than more ubiquitous collections in most scenarios.
A tree is a hierarchical structure defined recursively starting with the root node, where each node is a data structure consisting of a value, together with a list of references to other nodes (the "children"). A lot of problems can be solved efficiently with trees, which makes them important for developers.
Familiarity with data serialization to and from formats such as XML and JSON is important as it is commonly used for interprocess communication
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability across the Internet. This is one of the most used formats for exchanging data over the web.
A good programmer should be familiar with when to use recursive functions, since they can provide elegant solutions for complex problems.
Choosing the right data structure to solve a problem can have huge implications on the performance of an application. Knowing when to use a specific data structure is one of the most important skills for a programmer.
Access modifiers like public, protected, or private should be used to specify accessibility levels - who can access the object or some of its parts. They are one of the key points for writing maintainable object-oriented code.
Multi-threading allows a process to make more efficient use of modern hardware by allowing code to execute asynchronously. It can drastically improve the performance of any app; however, it can be tricky to get right, making this an important topic for any programmer.
When using multithreading, developers need to know how to make one thread wait for another to finish its task before continuing with its work.
Since a string is an immutable data structure, concatenating multiple strings can introduce significant performance penalties. Every experienced developer should know when to use StringBuilder instead of simply concatenating two strings to improve performances in such scenarios.
The ArrayList class acts like a resizable array. It is used when there is a need for an array that can have a variable size.
A good programmer should be able to analyze and plan for the performance of an algorithm.
A stack is dynamic data container that follows the Last In First Out (LIFO) principle. Developers should use stack when the last item to be inserted into a container is the first one to be deleted from it.
Stream API is used to process collections of objects. It supports various methods, such as mapping, filtering, and sorting, which can be pipelined to produce the desired result. Since it simplifies code and improves productivity, it should be well known to Java programmers.
Class modifiers like abstract, final, or static should be used to specify how a class should be used and what is allowed or not allowed to be done with it. This is an essential topic for OOP programming.
In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing a class upon another class, retaining similar implementation. Inheritance allows programmers to reuse code and is a must know topic for every programmer who works with OOP languages.
Test case design
Many real-life situations are best modeled by graphs. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of graph data structures is important for a good programmer.
Test case design
Being able to create a set of test cases that ensure adequate test coverage is a key skill for creating a successful test. It is desirable for the test suite also to be optimal, i.e. to minimize test execution effort and time without affecting the test coverage.
Unit testing is a type of software testing where individual units or components of a software are tested. Unit testing of software applications is done during the development (coding) of an application and should be well known practice to any developer.
HashSet is container that stores unique elements in no particular order. This allows for fast checks to see if a value was already added.
Method overriding, in object-oriented programming, is a language feature that allows a subclass to provide a specific implementation of a method that is already provided by one of its parent classes.
Dynamic programming methods for code optimization can be very useful to a programmer who understands them.
Configuration is a crucial component of most systems and frameworks. It allows a developer to tune performance and control access to features.
Higher order function
Database abstraction decouples business logic from a database, making it a key component of many web frameworks.
Higher order function
A higher order function is a function that takes another function as an argument, or returns another function. Developers often use them for writing reusable code.
An interface is used to define an abstract type that defines behaviors as method signatures. Instances of different types can implement the same interface and provide a way for a developer to reuse the code.