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The Java programming language is a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Having a basic familiarity with the programming language used on the job is a prerequisite for quickly getting up to speed.
Object-oriented programming is a paradigm based on encapsulating logic and data into objects, which may then contain fields and procedures. Many of the most widely used programming languages are based on OOP, making it a very important concept in modern programming.
Everyone makes mistakes. A good programmer should be able to find and fix a bug in their or someone else's code.
Memory management allows programs to request memory dynamically from the operating system, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. Many modern programming languages automate this process; however, it should still be an important consideration when implementing an application.
A programmer should use a language as a tool, always taking advantage of language-specific data types and built-in functions.
A stream is a sequence of data elements made available over time. It is particularly useful for tasks that may benefit from being asynchronous, including tasks such as I/O processing or reading from a file, and as such is important for developers to understand.
The string data structure is used to represent text. It is one of the most commonly used data structures. Therefore, every programmer should be skilled at string manipulation.
Familiarity with data serialization to and from formats such as XML and JSON is important as it is commonly used for interprocess communication
Exceptions exist in most modern programming languages, making it important for a programmer to understand them and know how to handle them.
Choosing the right data structure to solve a problem can have huge implications on the performance of an application. Knowing when to use a specific data structure is one of the most important skills for a programmer.
An array is a container of a fixed number of objects of a similar type. It is a fundamental component of most programming languages.
Iteration is the act of repeating a process, or cycling through a collection. Iteration is one of the fundamental flow control tools available to developers.
Arithmetic is a fundamental branch of mathematics. An understanding of arithmetic concepts, and their application, is important for every candidate.
Multi-threading allows a process to make more efficient use of modern hardware by allowing code to execute asynchronously. It can drastically improve the performance of any app; however, it can be tricky to get right, making this an important topic for any programmer.
The Spring Framework is an application framework that can be used to build both java applications and web applications. As one of the most widely used frameworks it's important for most Java developers to have a working knowledge of.
Database abstraction decouples business logic from a database, making it a key component of many web frameworks.
Configuration is a crucial component of most systems and frameworks. It allows a developer to tune performance and control access to features.
When designing and/or analyzing an algorithm or data structure, it is important to consider the performance and structure of an implementation. Algorithmic thinking is one of the key traits of a good programmer, especially one working on complex or performance-critical code.
Every programmer should be familiar with data-searching methods, as they are very common in data-analysis processes.
Many real-life situations are best modeled by graphs. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of graph data structures is important for a good programmer.
Dynamic programming methods for code optimization can be very useful to a programmer who understands them.
The process of restructuring existing computer code without changing its external behavior. It is essential for keeping code readable and maintainable.
Test-driven development (TDD) is a software development process that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: requirements are turned into very specific test cases, based on which the software is improved only in order to pass the new tests. TDD is an essential skill for modern programmers.
Test case design
Every programmer should be familiar with data-sorting methods, as sorting is very common in data-analysis processes.
Test case design
Being able to create a set of test cases that ensure adequate test coverage is a key skill for creating a successful test. It is desirable for the test suite also to be optimal, i.e. to minimize test execution effort and time without affecting the test coverage.
The MVC pattern is designed to split an application into three logical parts: the model, the view and the controller. The model is responsible for the data and the rules of the application. The view is responsible for outputting that information, and the controller is responsible for accepting input from a user and forwarding it to the model or the view. Every web developer should be familiar with the MVC pattern and the benefits of encapsulating these components.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services. As it is one of the most commonly used architectures, knowledge of REST is important for back-end developers.