, Index Performance
, Employee Manager
, Merge Stock Index
, Cheapest Product
, Movies Live
, ATM Locations
, Department Report
, Delete Orders
, Restaurant Menu
, Student Activities
, Youngest Child
, SMS Messages
, Bank Branches
, Hospital Patients
, Ban Users
, Menu Items
SQL is the dominant technology for accessing application data. It is increasingly becoming a performance bottleneck when it comes to scalability. Given its dominance, SQL is a crucial skill for all engineers.
An aggregate function is typically used in database queries to group together multiple rows to form a single value of meaningful data. A good programmer should be skilled at using data aggregation functions when interacting with databases.
Subqueries are commonly used in database interactions, making it important for a programmer to be skilled at writing them.
The proper implementation and use of indexes are important for improving the performance of database queries.
A normalized database is normally made up of multiple tables. Joins are, therefore, required to query across multiple tables.
Conditional statements are a feature of most programming and query languages. They allow the programmer to control what computations are carried out based on a Boolean condition.
Even though most database insert queries are simple, a good programmer should know how to handle more complicated situations like batch inserts.
A programmer should use a language as a tool, always taking advantage of language-specific data types and built-in functions.
In mathematics, a union typically involves testing if an element exists in two or more sets. This definition also applies as an operator and function in various programming languages. As one of the most common collection operations, alongside intersection, it's an important topic for any candidate to understand.
Constraints are used to define rules and relationships. They are applied to a dataset. A constraint may take many forms, such as x ≤ 5 in a programming language and a NOT NULL constraint in a SQL table definition.
A database schema defines how data is stored in a database. An SQL database uses a schema to define tables consisting of rows and columns that use fixed data types to store data. Formalizing how data is stored is the first step towards building an application or service.
The performance of an application or system is important. The responsiveness and scalability of an application are all related to how performant an application is. Each algorithm and query can have a large positive or negative effect on the whole system.
Everyone makes mistakes. A good programmer should be able to find and fix a bug in their or someone else's code.
The UPDATE statement is used to modify the existing records in a table and is one of the most used operations for working with the database.
The delete statement is used to delete records in a table and is one of the four basic CRUD functions (create, read, update, and delete) required for working with any persistent storage.
A database view is a result set that is defined by a stored query, the results of which can can also be queried. As a fundamental and widely used database construct, it's useful for candidates to understand how and when they should be used.